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by Vaibhav & Medisid


Transcript is a set of documents given from the college as an assessment of all you have done. It contains all your postings(ward rotations/ clerkships) details.. marks.. etc.. there is not fixed format for it.. Each college has its own format. It is not usually given before completion of your degree. In short, you need a documentation of the clerkships you have done during mbbs and the details of your marks of all your years with a official seal/ stamp on the documents. Thanks to vaibhav for this valuable description!

A sample can be downloaded from the bottom of this webpage, thanks to medisid!

USMLE Step 1

 by Junaid Nasir, MD, MBBS

TIPS for Choosing & Planning Elective months and rotation choices

by Medisid


‘’If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants/predecessors.’’ – Sir Isaac Newton

During the process of applying to electives and choosing between the elective choices, months and places; I committed or observed other’s mistakes pertaining to overspent application fees, missed rotations, listing too competitive departments, overlapping acceptances, F1,B2 visa overlapping problems. So I would like to share the experience and some ‘personal/my own/sixth sense’ thoughts. Everyone’s entitled to one and I am expressing mine here.

Choosing your specialty:

Decide what you want to become now! A gastroenterologist, Oncosurgeon, Radiologist .........Remember we have to prove during our residency interview/personal statement why we want that specialty and justify it (electives in that specialty is a good solution for it).

For pure terminal branches like Rads there is no difficulty in choosing your rotation. Start with basic radiology, then higher branches like interventional etc.

Get the Terms Right!

Many students are mistaken when Universities tell them that we don't offer clerkship or you must complete all your clerkships before doing electives.... just because they don't know the difference.... so I am creating a webpage just for basic terms!

Electives: Any optional ward rotation done... clinical electives in usually final year of medical school in Pakistan and others and in pre-intern year in India... research electives can be done anytime! These includes rotations like radiology, cardiac surgery, chest medicine... that are not compulsory! Mostly US/ UK electives are done to get good reference/ letter for your future job/ training positions.

Observership: Any ward rotation in which you observe/watch the attendings, residents, fellows or other medical students but you are not allowed to touch/examine the patient yourself or participate in any sort of activity, though you can watch everyone doing everything... considered to be a passive form of learning as compared to electives! You can also get a letter/ reference from observerships but generally people consider reference letter from electives experience to be better than reference letter from observerships; though I personally believe a very good observership letter is better than an ordinary electives letter. If you get a chance to chose one out of two... I recommend electives!

Updated Info

This page is dedicated to the new updated info. As I am no more doing electives, so I wont be a regular contributor of this page but all the visitors can contribute here. I am really pleased to copy paste the first contribution from vaibhav in the form of a comment under list of universities page. Others can also simply contribute this way by adding a comment and the content would be uploaded here. Thanks!

Mandatory Training Infection Control new

dear himanshu, i also needed the infxn ctrl training for MSKCC n NY letter.

MSKCC directed me to this NY state nurses association training which would suffice even for NY letter..........the link u mentioned has this course also.........goto ur link-> scroll below ->> NY state nurses association  --->> new york -----> infxn ctrl training course ---> register


It costs 25$ to do that online...............took me an hour to complete and then do the questions in the end. The qs r arranged sequentially as they are in the modules. so u just need to go back n revise while u r doing the qs.......(sorry for my cheating methods; but that way i sorted out the important topics) and u have 3 attempts to do that exam, otherwise u'll have to give again 25$. i passed on 1st attempt...u can too.......

Best Wishes

CS protocol

First read the door info and write down that on the paper of sheet along with the mnemonics: PAM HUGS FOSS SODA along with the D/D of that case and also the investigations...NOT TO FORGET THE NAME OF THE PERSON and then write down the SELF MADE mnemonic of HPI
I have already learned System review questions so no need for a mnemonic for them....
and then complications...
so the page is divided into 6 categories

First knock on the door 3 times....SMILE and enter when the person calls you in:

I will start with
1. GOOD MORNING MR. XYZ I am Dr. ABC DEF and am here to see you as your physician today...

2 .Nice to meet you....shake hands

3. Is everything in the room allright for you Mr. XYZ?
and look around too tongue.gif

4. Then cover the naked legs by sayin...LET ME MAKE YOU A BIT MORE COMFORTABLE MR. SMITH

5. Stand back at a distance of 2 feet and DONT CROSS ARMS...look into the eyes and look comfortably asking with empathy...

So, How may I help you today?

the patient begins with the CC

6. you hear it and then say: OH, I AM SO SORRY TO HEAR THAT MR. SMITH. I SHALL TRY MY BEST TO HELP YOU. HOPE YOU DONT MIND IF I TAKE SOME NOTES WHILE YOU SPEAK (and you pick up the paper and pencil)


and the patient moves on...

now the second part of the history starts: the questions specific to the CC that are there in that...a MUST! 

Mnemonics for USMLE Step 2 CS cases

HPI (history of present illness)

Ask for: LIQOR AAA


L Location of the symptom (forehead, wrist…)
I Intensity of the symptom (scale 1-10, 6/10)
Q Quality of the symptom (burning, pulsating pain…)
O Onset of the symptom + precipitating factors
R Radiation of the symptom ( to left shoulder and arm)

A Associated symptoms ( palpitations, shortness of breath)
A Alleviating factors (sitting with my chest on my knees)
A Aggravating factors (effort, smoking, large meals)

PMH (past medical history)

Search for:



P Previous presence of the symptom (same chief complaint)
A Allergies (drugs, foods, chemicals, dust …)
M Medicines (any drugs the patient used)

H Hospitalization for any illness in the past
U Urinary changes ( esp if diabetic, elderly…)
G Gastrointestinal complains (diet changes, bowel movements…)
S Sleep pattern (waking up/going to sleep…)

F Family history (simmilar chief complaints/serious illness)
O OB/GYN history (LMP, abortions, para…)
S Sexual habits (active/preferences/STD…)
S Social life (job/house/smoking/alcohol…..)

Pain history checklist


CS by Hammad Bhai

1... usmle world (uw) (there r almost 70 cases ..u need to prepare all of em..there is one case missing ..depression
also psychiatry case questions need to b done from first aid...

2... first aid...wen ur done wid ur cases(uw) 3-4 times..take a mock history on a rough paper n then write the notes
history physical d/d investigations on first aid.they hav provided space just for that..on the next page they hav
indicated how it shud hav bn done...almost 26 cases..
3..if u can..kaplan csa has a gud examination section ..u can memorize the exact commands to b used during physical..

..get a partner..memorize the scheme(appears undrneath)...take one it for say 15 minutes..leave the book...
start doing the case while ur friend is the simulated the end ur frend will tell u ur mistakes..take few moments to go over em..n then go
onto the next case...those who think ratalizing the book first n practise later is the way do it..are truly at fault..PRACTISE FROM THE WORD GO..
THOSE WHO ARE GOOD WITH THEIR ROUTINE WILL B successful coz u need to hav everything at ur spinal level..making it a reflex.. don't hav time
to think everything....PRACTICE...

go thru usmle world 4-5 times..may take one month...practise ur notes on first aid...

ull b given 2 pens n 2 papers for each case(total 24 papers) paper is 4ruff work n the other one 4 actual
notes that will count...once u r standing facing the door..first the pt will b asked to take his position inside
the room n then ull b asked to slide open the doorway info infront of u..

wat u need to do is that..

1..write the name of pt on top left corner coz ull forget it once ur inside n u need to repeatedly address him/her
using the name..say mr steven or ms barbara not just steven...

CS made easy

Introducing Your Self:
Knock the door before entering. Wait for a while and then slightly open the door and call the patient by last name
Mr. / Ms. Smith! Hello! I am Dr Chebli, I will be your physician today (Shake hands with the patient and look into SP eyes), nice to meet you! I will ask you some questions and do a physical exam on you, is that fine with you?
Let me cover you up”…and while saying so, DRAPE the patient’s legs up to his belly. Then, “So Mr. / Ms Smith, what made you come in today?”
After SP tells you the CC and stops, first EXPRESS SYMPATHY- say, “Oh I am sorry to hear that, I shall try my level best to help you. I hope you do not mind if I write down a few notes while we talk”.
Are there any other concerns that you have? If yes, then ask:”Anything else?
If multiple problems, then ask:” As you have a number of concerns, what seems more important to you?”
Please tell me more about it from the beginning?
What made you decide to get it checked now?
SP in pain, your answer:” Is there anything I can do to help you feel more comfortable right now?”

Pt in great pain:
Ms. Kenfack, I am Dr Chebli, I will be your physician today. I can see you are really suffering. I am here to help you.
I’ll just need to ask you a few questions and do a quick physical exam in order to know what is bothering you. Is that OK with you?
To make you a little more comfortable, let me cover you up.
Is there anything I can do to help you feel more comfortable right now?
Can you please tell me more about what is bothering you?

Silent Pt:
Ms. Kenfack, Hello I am Dr Chebli, I am the phys on duty here today. Ms. Kenfack, I know life can be stressful and even may be hard to come and see a doctor. Take your time; I am here to help you.
Go get napkins and give to the patient. Wait three seconds

Observership, Research and Externship in the United States

by Dr. Aitzaz Bin Sultan Rai.


Observerships, research and externships give you an exposure of healthcare system of
United States and give you an idea of what to expect during residency; (the nature of work,
healthcare facilities, code of conduct for healthcare professionals, the cutting edge
technology, electronic healthcare records, diseases prevalent in a certain geographical area
and the social and cultural values of people of United States). In this issue of the section of
the Road to Residency, Aitzaz and Saima discuss their views about the importance and the
various ways to do an observership, research and externship in the United States.
Why do an observership, research or an externship in the United

Before we give our views on how to find an observership, research or an externship in the
US, let’s first give you a few reasons as to why to opt for these options.

(1) Observerships, research and externships give you an exposure of healthcare system of
United States and give you an idea of what to expect during residency; (the nature of work,
healthcare facilities, code of conduct for healthcare professionals, the cutting edge technology,
electronic healthcare records, diseases prevalent in a certain geographical area and the social
and cultural values of people of United States).

(2) By working with US physicians and researchers, you make “connections” in the System
which pays you a lot later on when you are applying for a residency spot in the US after doing
your USMLE (Unites States Medical Licensing Examination). The name of an imminent
scientist or clinician in the references section of your CV can open many doors for you in your
professional life. The Letters of recommendations (LORs) from the faculty of a renowned

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